2016年3月15日 星期二

Going Head-to-Head   美式足球球員的腦部衝擊

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2016/03/15 第254期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

Going Head-to-Head   美式足球球員的腦部衝擊
by Daniel Howard

Professional football players are hurting their brains in the sport they love.

  American football is a dangerous game. It is a full-contact sport, so it is common for players to twist joints, break bones, bleed internally, and hit their heads. Doctors have begun to think that the sport is just too dangerous, especially in regard to head injuries.
  In a recent study, 165 people who played football at the high school, college or professional level donated their brains to science after they died. Of these people, nearly 80 percent showed signs of long-term brain damage. Among former professional football players, 96 percent showed signs of brain damage. Many donors had shown symptoms of brain damage before they died, however, so the results of the study could be higher than the actual number of people who might have gotten brain damage from playing football. Still, many football players develop problems with memory loss, depression, and dementia when they get older. Suicide is a major problem among retired football players as well.
  Despite the overwhelming evidence that football is causing serious brain injuries, it is still a controversial issue. Football is a significant part of American culture, and the sport is important to many people. It is big business: the total value of the National Football League (NFL) and all of its teams is around US$45 billion. Football scholarships offer thousands of students free university tuition each year, and anyone good enough to play professionally can make millions of US dollars a year. For many people, the rewards might seem worth the risks, but for others, the long-term risks exceed the temporary rewards. Nowadays, fewer parents are enrolling their children in football in favor of less dangerous sports. Others are pushing for rule changes to prevent so many injuries. American football isn't likely to disappear, but the rules will probably change to make the game safer in the years to come.

1. Which type of football injury worries doctors the most?
(A) Twisted joints.
(B) Broken bones.
(C) Internal bleeding.
(D) Head injuries.
2. How many professional football players showed signs of brain damage?
(A) All of them.
(B) 165 of them.
(C) 96 percent of them.
(D) 80 percent of them.
3. Why might the study show higher rates of brain damage?
(A) Donors already had some symptoms before they died.
(B) It only studied professional players.
(C) Doctors wanted to prove the danger.
(D) All the donors played football for a long time.
4. How are most parents responding to the dangers of football?
(A) They are finding better sports doctors.
(B) They are enrolling children in less dangerous sports.
(C) They are making their children wear more protective gear.
(D) They are having their children stay home.


full-contact a. 全接觸性的
joint n. 關節
dementia n. 失智症
scholarship n. 獎學金;學識(不可數)
gear n. 裝備(不可數);齒輪(可數)

  1. head-to-head  正面交鋒
    衍: go head to head (with...)  (與某人)正面交鋒
    Bill won a head-to-head election with 80 percent of total votes cast.
    Luke went head to head with his long-time rival for the manager position.
  2. show signs of...  顯示……的跡象
    Tina let the horse run at full speed until it began to show signs of fatigue.
    *fatigue n. 疲倦
  3. enroll sb in...  替(某人)報名……
    When I was young, my parents enrolled me in a swimming class.
  4. in favor of...  贊成/支持……
    Few parents are in favor of the recent changes to the education system.
  5. push for...  力圖爭取……
    The president will have a meeting with members of Congress to push for an increase of the minimum wage.
  6. 一段時間 + to come  在未來……時間
    Although he passed away, the King of Pop will be remembered for years to come.

Doctors have begun to think that the sport is just too dangerous, especially in regard to head injuries.
in regard to...  關於
同: with regard to...
regard vt. 把……視為(與介詞 as 並用)& n. 問候(恆用複數)
regard A as B  將 A 視為 B
In regard to your request for a refund, we have referred the matter to our manager.
Give my best regards to your parents.
We can all regard Adam's success as reflection of his dedication to his studies.
It is big business: the total value of the National Football League (NFL) and all of its teams is around US$45 billion.
business n. 生意(不可數); 事業(可數)
Business has been very good recently.
Starting a business isn't all that difficult. It all boils down to money.
*boil down to...  歸結為……

  1. twist vt. 扭(曲/彎);扭轉;曲解 & n.(形勢或事情的)意外轉折
    衍: twist the truth  扭曲真相
    Dan twisted his ankle while climbing the tree behind my house.
    The movie ended with a dramatic twist with the police officer turning out to be the killer.
    The president angered the voters by spreading rumors and twisting the truth.
  2. bleed vi. 流血(三態為:bleed, bled, bled。)
    衍: bleed like a stuck pig  大量出血
    After the explosion, many people lay on the floor bleeding.
    The criminal fell down on his back after being shot, bleeding like a stuck pig.
  3. internally adv. 內在地;內部地
    反: externally adv. 外在地;外部地
    The man was bleeding internally from the accident.
    The girl may seem cold externally, but deep down she is a nice person.
  4. donate vt. 捐贈
    Aaron can't donate bone marrow to Sophie because their types aren't compatible.
    *marrow n. 髓
  5. damage n. 損害(不可數);賠償金(法律用語,恆用複數)
    Drinking too much alcohol is bound to cause liver damage.
    *be bound to V  必定會……
    The court awarded David US$1 million in damages.
  6. symptom n. 症狀
    Coughing, sneezing, and having a runny nose are symptoms of a bad cold.
  7. suicide n. 自殺
    Will was undoubtedly out of his mind when he tried to commit suicide.
    *commit vt. 犯(罪)
  8. overwhelming a. 壓倒性的
    An overwhelming majority of the staff members were opposed to the new regulation.
  9. controversial a. 有爭議性的
    Capital punishment is a controversial issue in many countries.
    *capital punishment  死刑
  10. tuition n. 學費
  11. reward n. 獎勵;報酬 & vt. 獎勵
    Wright was given a reward for helping the police solve the crime.
  12. exceed vt. 超出/過
    Make sure our expenditure on research doesn't exceed our budget.
    *expenditure n. 支出,費用


1. 美式足球的哪一種傷害讓醫生最為擔心?
(A) 關節扭傷。
(B) 骨折。
(C) 內出血。
(D) 腦部損傷。
題解:根據本文第一段,特別在頭部受創方面,醫生們已開始思考這項運動根本是危險過頭了,故 (D) 項應為正選。
2. 有多少職業美式足球員有腦部損傷的徵兆?
(A) 全部皆有。
(B) 當中的一百六十五人。
(C) 當中九成六的人。
(D) 當中八成的人。
題解:根據本文第二段,在前職業美式足球員中,九成六的人顯示出腦部損傷的徵兆,故 (C) 項應為正選。
3. 為什麼該研究報告可能會顯示出較高的腦部損傷比例?
(A) 捐贈者在生前已有些徵兆了。
(B) 它只研究職業球員的狀況。
(C) 醫生想要證明它的危險性。
(D) 全部的捐贈者皆打了很長時間的美式足球。
題解:根據本文第二段,許多捐贈者在生前就已經有腦部受損的症狀,因此比起打美式足球而可能患有腦部損傷的實際人數,此研究結果可能會更高,故 (A) 項應為正選。
4. 大多數的家長對美式足球所帶來的危險如何反應?
(A) 他們正找尋更好的運動醫生。
(B) 他們替孩子報名危險性較低的運動。
(C) 他們讓孩子穿上更有保護性的裝備。
(D) 他們讓孩子待在家裡。
題解:根據本文第三段,現今,替自家孩子報名參加美式足球的家長更少了,他們轉而支持危險性較低的運動,故 (B) 項應為正選。

答案: 1. D 2. C 3. A 4. B

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