2020年6月22日 星期一

Outstanding Owl Facts 貓頭鷹知多少

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2020/06/23 第466期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份直接訂閱

Outstanding Owl Facts 貓頭鷹知多少
by Daniel Howard


  Found in Winnie-the-Pooh and the Harry Potter novels, owls have a well-established place in pop culture and literature. In the real world, there are over 200 species that can be found in almost every imaginable environment and habitat. Their distinctive calls fill the night sky the world over, but what do we really know about owls?
  Some standard misconceptions about owls include the idea that they are nocturnal hunters. This isn’t universally true, though. Different species hunt at different times of day, and it’s surprisingly straightforward to tell which is which just by looking at the owl. How? By their eye color. Night hunters have dark eyes—often black. Day hunters, on the other hand, have yellow eyes, while those that hunt at twilight sport red or orange eyes.
  Another popular fact about owls is how far they can rotate their heads. In fact, they can turn their heads about 270 degrees and twist their heads almost completely upside down. This trait evolved due to their strangely shaped eyes. Unlike many other birds and animals that have round eyeballs, an owl’s eyes are long and shaped more like tubes. This gives them better eyesight and depth perception, but it prevents the eyes from moving in their sockets; instead, owls just move their whole heads.
  Interestingly, owls also have complex social lives. Though owls tend to mate for life, certain types are known to get “divorces.” In fact, partnered barn owls split up around 25% of the time. The ultimate goal isn’t to find a more attractive partner, but to look for a more compatible partner to raise offspring with. And this only scratches the surface of all that is awesome about these remarkable birds.
1. What is the passage mainly about?
(A) Owls’ danger of extinction.
(B) Owls’ roles in the ecosystem.
(C) Unusual features of owls.
(D) The role of owls in pop culture and literature.
2. You are in the wild around 10:00 p.m. Which of the following owls are you most likely to spot?

3. What does “it” in the third paragraph refer to?
(A) The ability of other birds to move their eyeballs.
(B) The fact that animals have round eyeballs.
(C) An owl’s excellent eyesight.
(D) The shape of owls’ eyes.
4. Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?
(A) Some owls get divorced because they want to find a better partner that they can raise their young together with.
(B) Owls turn their heads completely upside down when they want to be more attractive to other owls.
(C) To determine whether an owl is nocturnal, one should look at its eye shape.
(D) Most owls go hunting during the daytime, with only a few exceptions.


well-established a. 享有盛名的,信譽卓著的
misconception n. 誤解,錯誤觀念
nocturnal a. 夜行性的
 diurnal a. 晝行性的,日間活動的
socket n. 窩;槽
partner vt. 和某人成為搭檔(本文為過去分詞作形容詞用)& n. 伴侶;夥伴;搭檔
offspring n.(動物的)幼獸;後代
ecosystem n. 生態系統

1. on the other hand  另一方面
• Dining out can be nice, but on the other hand, cooking a meal at home can be more nutritious and less expensive.

2. upside down  上下顛倒
• Annie hung the picture upside down.

3. split up (with sb)  (與某人)分手
• Roy and Vera decided to split up after the big fight.

4. scratch the surface of...  僅觸及……(問題)的表面
• The money you gave us doesn’t even scratch the surface of the amount we need.

1. imaginable a. 可想像得到的
• This school offers courses in every subject imaginable.

2. habitat n.(動物的)棲息地
• The polar bear’s habitat is the icy regions of the Arctic.

3. distinctive a. 與眾不同的;特殊的
• The policemen in this city wear a distinctive uniform, so they are easily recognized.

4. universally adv. 普遍地,一般地
• Mark is universally thought of as a successful comedian.

5. straightforward a. 簡單的,易懂的
• The machine’s operating manual is quite straightforward and not complicated at all.

6. sport vt. 穿戴
• Steve sported a new suit and tie for the wedding.

7. rotate vt. & vi.(使)轉動/旋轉
• Rotate the handle by 90 degrees to open the door.
• Stay away from the helicopter when its blades start to rotate.

8. evolve vi. 進化,演化;逐漸發展
evolve from...  演化自……;從……演變而來
evolve into...  進化成/逐漸演變為……
• Most scientists believe that humans evolved from apes.
• The family company has evolved into a multinational corporation.

9. perception n. 知覺;認知,察覺
• Some drugs will alter your perception of reality.

10. ultimate a. 最終的;極限的
• My ultimate goal in life is to become an astronaut.

11. compatible a. 契合的;相容的
be compatible with...  和……相容
• The new application is not compatible with your computer.

12. extinction n. 滅絕,絕種
• Many species are in danger of extinction due to exploitation of their habitats.

twilight n. 黃昏時分
at twilight  在黃昏時分
• We were enchanted by the sky at twilight as we walked through the park.
a. morning  早上
b. sunrise  日出
c. dawn / daybreak  黎明
d. noon / midday  中午
e. afternoon  下午
f. sunset  日落
g. dusk  黃昏
h. evening  傍晚;晚上
i. night  晚上
j. midnight  午夜

This trait evolved due to their strangely shaped eyes.
※ 表原因、理由的片語介詞常見的有下列:
due to、owing to、thanks to、because of、as a result of、on account of
• The outdoor carnival has been postponed until tomorrow due to thundershowers.
As a result of poor management, the company is on the verge of bankruptcy.
as a result 也可以單獨作副詞片語使用,此時表「結果」而非「原因」,可譯為「因此」。
• The cost of living is continuously rising. As a result, many people have taken second jobs.
※ 表「原因,理由」的副詞連接詞有 because、since 及 as,分述如下:
a. because 是表示「原因,理由」最常使用的副詞連接詞,其引導的子句可置於主要子句之前或之後。
• Nobody in our class likes Ed because he keeps talking nonsense.
對等連接詞 for 也可表「理由」,用以補充前述事項的完整理由,與 because 不同的是,for 不能置於句首。
• We won’t go to the beach, for it looks like it’s going to rain.
b. since 可譯為「由於,既然」,其所引導的子句多置於前面。
• Since John is good with his hands, he’s suited for the work of repairing cars.
c. as 為間接地補充說明原因及理由,通常置於主要子句之後,補述原因。
• You should come with us as you are familiar with that town.


  一些對於貓頭鷹普遍的錯誤印象包含牠們是夜間狩獵者這個想法。不過,並非普遍如此。不同種類的貓頭鷹在一天中出來獵捕的時間各異,而要分辨哪一種是在什麼時候獵捕出奇地簡單,只要看那隻貓頭鷹就知道了。怎麼看呢?由牠們眼睛的顏色來判別。夜間狩獵者擁有深色的雙眼 ── 通常是黑色的。另一方面,日間狩獵者擁有黃色的雙眼,而在黃昏時分出來狩獵的則擁有紅色或橘色的雙眼。
  有趣的是,貓頭鷹也有複雜的社交生活。雖然貓頭鷹通常是終身伴侶,但已知某些種類的貓頭鷹會「離婚」。事實上,已有伴侶的倉鴞大約有 25% 的時間都會離婚。最終目的不是找到一個更有吸引力的伴侶,而是找到一個更合拍的伴侶以和牠一起養育後代。而這些僅僅是這種非凡鳥類迷人特質的冰山一角而已。
1. 本文的主旨為何?
(A) 貓頭鷹的滅絕危機。
(B) 貓頭鷹在生態系統中的角色。
(C) 貓頭鷹非比尋常的特色。
(D) 貓頭鷹在流行文化和文學中的角色。
2. 你在晚上十點身處在野外。你最有可能見到下列哪一隻貓頭鷹?
題解: 第二段提及,在夜間狩獵的貓頭鷹擁有深色的雙眼,而且通常是黑色的,可知晚上十點在野外最可能見到眼睛為黑色的貓頭鷹,故答案應選 (B)。
3. 本文第三段的 “it” 指的是什麼?
(A) 其他鳥類移動眼球的能力。
(B) 動物擁有圓眼球的這個事實。
(C) 貓頭鷹優異的視力。
(D) 貓頭鷹眼睛的形狀。
4. 根據本文,下列敘述何者正確?
(A) 有些貓頭鷹會離婚,因為牠們想找到一個能夠一起養育後代的更好伴侶。
(B) 當貓頭鷹想要讓自己對其他貓頭鷹更具吸引力時,會將自己的頭轉成完全上下顛倒。
(C) 想要確定某隻貓頭鷹是不是夜行性的話,你應該從牠的眼睛形狀來看。
(D) 多數貓頭鷹都在白天狩獵,只有一些例外。
答案:1. C 2. B 3. D 4. A



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